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Water Loss Management

Technical Service of the General Consultancy for Non-Revenue Water Reduction in Keelung, Taichung, and Kaohsiung Water Supply Systems

Date: 2021/08/09

Summary of Current Project

The object of this project is to increase the stability of the water supply system and the rate of water sales in Keelung, Taichung and Kaohsiung, by reducing 29,000, 79,000 and 66,000 plus CMD of NRW, which amounts to a total water supply loss reduction of 174,000 CMD and more.

Contents of the Project

Estimated to complete all operations for reducing the NRW of water supply systems in Keelung, Taichung and Kaohsiung within 6 years. The entire project can be separated into three phases that include analysis and evaluation, design planning and actual operation. Technical services will be provided as soon as analysis and evaluation starts and assistance to help the Taiwan Water Company in completing the follow up design planning and inspection of actual operation for the water supply systems in Keelung, Taichung and Kaohsiung will also be available.

Analysis and Evaluation Phase

Perform analysis and evaluation to the current condition of the 3 water supply system in Keelung, Taichung and Kaohsiung in order to draft the IWA water balance chart then establish the baseline value and performance indicator of the system’s NRW. The project aims to introduce internationally common NRW reduction management strategies through the participation of specialist teams from around the globe, drawing up general reports of the NRW reduction project for water supply systems in Keelung, Taichung and Kaohsiung. The international team of specialists will also assist the head consultant in reviewing the execution effectiveness of the overall project, providing feedbacks to correct the method of execution and contents of each phase. The specialists will also draft technical standards and operation guidelines of communality within the design and planning phase, while providing assistance in the invitation to tender operation for the design planning, construction monitoring and actual operation of the water supply systems in Keelung and Taichung. A total of 5 workshops related to NRW reduction will be held during the project period and the head consultant should provide assistance to the consultation services in regards to NRW reduction by participating in related review and audit meetings, providing professional opinions.

Actual Operation Phase

The work involved in this particular phase includes the construction, installation, budget control, quality supervision, sanitary and safety, revision management and the establishment of maintenance strategy for all the facilities, equipment and system. The head consultant is responsible for providing an overall management service for the entire project in regards to contents mentioned above, then provide feedbacks and review that correct the contents of the analysis and evaluation phase according to actual results from the actual operation phase.

Summary of Previous Project

The “Water Leakage Reduction Plan” (2013 ~ 2022) was introduced according to former President Ma’s Golden Decade policy objective: “Gradually reduce the rate of leakage for tap water from the current condition of 20% to 17% within the first 5 years and below 15% in 10 years”.

Chart Chart
Phase 1 (2013 to 2016)

Reduce water leakage rate below 17% with an annual reduction of 0.65%.

Phase 2 (2014 to 2022)

Reduce water leakage rate below 15% with 0.6% reduction in 2017, 0.5% in 2018 and 0.4% between the years 2019 to 2022.

Execution Strategy for Water Leakage Control

According IWA and international standards, there are 4 types of strategies that effectively reduce water leakage in pipe lines, as shown below:

Water Pressure Management

The amount and change of water pressure has enormous impact on the frequency of water pipe bursting. Therefore, the management of water pressure is an important tool to greatly reduce the risk of pipeline leakage. The main idea is to reduce hydraulic hammer in order to reduce pipe burst by building a reasonable water pressure management operation mode, widely establishing pressure monitoring points and installing electrically operated valves at the main water distribution pipe in order to adjust and control water supply pressure, stabilizing the pressure at each node point between 1.5~2.5kg/cm2.

Speed and Quality of Fixing Leaks

The speed at which leakage can be repaired is directly related to the amount of water leaks and the quality of the fix can affect the possibility of water leakage reoccurrences in the future.

Active Water Leakage Control

Water leakages underground could be hard to detect. Therefore, a lot of resources have already been invested internationally, with the development of all types of professional leakage detecting techniques and precision instruments. Besides common leakage detection equipment that relies solely on hearing, there are also sound wave detection, helium gas testing, ground-penetrating radar and more. Regardless of the types of water leakage detection method, all the methods require proper operation, pipeline network sizing and water pressure/volume monitoring equipment, in order to effectively increase the rate at which leakage is detected. Furthermore, the goal to actively control water leakage can be achieved through the establishment of pipeline network zone metering and monitoring system.

Pipeline Asset Maintenance

After the completion of pipeline construction that embeds it underneath the roadway, it is then affected by natural environmental and artificial factors and slowly deteriorated as time pass by. The PVCP plastic tubing used by the water company in vast amounts becomes brittle when it ages and often breaks after heavy vehicle ran over the roadway, causing water leak. Therefore, when pipeline asset ages and its maintenance cost exceeds its residual value, then it is time to replace the pipelines.

Contact us

Thanks for your suggestions and comments.

Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Taiwan Branch

Stantec Environmental Technologies Taiwan Ltd.

9F,167 Dunhua North Road, Taipei 10549,Taiwan,R.O.C

TEL: (02) 8712-3866


Taiwan Water Corporation

No.2-1, Sec. 2, Shuangshih Rd., North District, Taichung City 404, Taiwan (R.O.C.)

TEL: (04) 2224-4191

Updateing Date:2021-08-09 16:26